Retina Consultants Publications Honolulu Hawaii


Kokame G.T., deCarlo T.E., Kaneko K.N., Omizo J.N. & Lian R., Anti-Vascular
Endothelial Growth Factor Resistance in Exudative Macular Degeneration and Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy, Ophthalmology Retina (2019)

Kokame GT, Yannuzzi NA, Shantha JG, Yamane M, Relhan N, Gross J, Ryan EH, Flynn HW Jr. Involution of Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration After Endophthalmitis. Retin. Cases Brief Rep. 2019 Mar 28.


de Carlo TE, Kokame GT, Shantha JG, Lai JC, Wee R: Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for the Diagnosis and Evaluation of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy. Ophthalmologica 2018;239:103-109.

Kokame GT, Yanagihara RT, Shantha JG, Kaneko KN, Long Term Outcome of Pars Plana Vitrectomy and Sutured Scleral-Fixated Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens Implantation or Repositioning, American Journal of Ophthalmology (2018); doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2018.01.034

Kokame GT, deCarlo T, Kaneko KN, Lian R, Lai JC, Wee R. Sensitivity and Specificity of Detecting Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy with En Face OCT and OCT Angiography. Retina 2018. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000002139 (epub ahead of print)

Agarwal M, Mayor R. Ranjan R, Kokame, GT. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenges. Retina, 30 April 2018; doi: 10.1097/iae.0000000000002174 (epub ahead of print)

Gregori, NZ, et al. Retinal Anatomy and Electrode Array Position in Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients after Argus II Implantation: an International Study American Journal of Ophthalmology 2018, 193:87-99.

Rizzo S, Barale PO, Ayello-Scheer S, et al. ADVERSE EVENTS OF THE ARGUS II RETINAL PROSTHESIS: Incidence, Causes, and Best Practices for Managing and Preventing Conjunctival Erosion. Retina. 2018 Nov 20. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000002394. [Epub ahead of print]


Kokame GT. Management of subretinal hemorrhage. Yan Ke Xue Bao 2017. doi: 10.3978/

Kokame GT, Tom E, Shantha JG, Kaneko K. Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy in Highly Myopic Eyes with Elongated Axial Length. The Open Ophthalmology Journal 2017, 11, 326-333.


Stoller GL, Kokame GT. Early and Delayed Visual Acuity Gains With Monthly or As-Needed Ranibizumab With Monthly Monitoring for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration. JAMA Ophthalmology 2016; 134(5):545–553.

Kokame GT, Lai JC, Wee R, Yanagihara R, Shantha JG, Ayabe J, Hirai K. Prospective clinical trial of intravitreal aflibercept treatment for polyploidal choroidal vasculopathy with hemorrhage or exudation (EPIC study): 6 month results. BMC Ophthalmology 2016 Feb; 16(127):1-10.

Kokame GT, Shantha JG, Hirai K, Ayabe J. En-face spectral domain optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis and evaluation of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2016 Aug;47(8):737-44.

Kokame GT, Tom ES, Shantha, JG. (2016). Chapter 1 Update on Advances in Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy – A Subtype of Subretinal Neovascularization.


Kokame GT, Yanagihara R, Hirai K. Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy – Imaging by Indocyanine Green Angiography and En Face Optical Coherence Tomography. JAMA Ophthalmology 2015: in press.

Pereira FB, Veloso CE, Nehemy MB, Kokame GT. Characterization of neovascular macular degeneration in Brazilian patients. Ophthalmologica 2015; in press.


Kokame GT.  Prospective evaluation of subretinal vessel location in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) and response of hemorrhagic and exudative PCV to high dose antiangiogenic therapy. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc  2014 in press.


     Kokame GT, Yeung L, Teramoto K, Lai JC, Wee R.  Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy exudation and hemorrhage – results of ranibizumab therapy at one year.  Ophthalmologica 2013; In press.

Sarraf D, Kokame GT. Laser Video ICG Angiography and SD-OCT for the Diagnosis of PCV and AMD. Retina Today. 2013 Sep;1-3.


     Kokame GT. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy–an important diagnosis to make with therapeutic implications. Retina. 2012 Sep;32(8):1446-8


     Aiello LP, Vignati L, Sheetz MJ, Zhi X, Girach A, Davis MD, Wolka AM, Shahri N, Milton RC; PKC-DRS and PKC-DRS2 Study Groups. Oral protein kinase c β inhibition using ruboxistaurin: efficacy, safety, and causes of vision loss among 813 patients (1,392 eyes) with diabetic retinopathy in the Protein Kinase C β Inhibitor-Diabetic Retinopathy Study and the Protein Kinase C β Inhibitor-Diabetic Retinopathy Study 2. Retina. 2011 Nov;31(10):2084-94.

    Yeung L, Kokame GT, Brod RD, Lightman DA, Lai JC.  Pneumatic retinopexy for retinal detachment associated with severe choroidal detachment.  Retina. 2011 Jan; 31(1):87-92.


    Bui AT, Rosen BS, Roe RH, Kokame GT.  Diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.  Retina.  2010 Nov-Dec;30(10):1744-8.

    Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network Writing Committee, Haller JA, Qin H, Apte RS, Beck RR, Bressler NM, Browning DJ, Danis RP, Glassman AR, Googe JM, Kollman C, Lauer AK, Peters MA, Stockman ME.  Vitrectomy outcomes in eyes with diabetic macular edema and vitreomacular traction.  Ophthalmology.  2010 Jun;117(6):1087-1093.e3.

    Wong RW, Kokame GT, Mahmoud TH, Mieler WF, Tornambe PE, McDonald HR.  Complications associated with clear corneal cataract wounds during vitrectomy.  Retina.  2010 Jun;30(6):850-5.

    Kokame GT, Yeung L, Lai JC.  Continuous anti-VEGF treatment with ranibizumab for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: 6-month results.  Br J Ophthalmol.  2010 Mar; 94(3):297-301.  Epub 2009 Sep 1.

    Chan CK, Abraham P, Meyer CH, Kokame GT, Kaiser PK, Rauser ME, Gross JG, Nuthi AS, Lin SG, Daher NS.  Optical Coherence tomography-measured pigment epithelial detachment height as a predictor for retinal pigment epithelial tears associated with intravitreal bevacizumab injections.  Retina. 2010 Feb; 30(2);203-211.


    Chang TS, Kokame G, Casey R, Prenner J, Feiner L, Anderson N.  Short-term effectiveness of intravitreal bevacizumab versus ranibizumab injections for patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration.  Retina.  2009 Oct; 29(9):1235-1241.

    Dinc UA, Yeneral NM, Gorgun E, Yetik H, Kokame GT, Lim JL.  Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenges.  Retina.  2009 Feb; 29(2):275-279.

    Suner IJ, Kokame GT, Yu E, Ward J, Dolan C, Bressler NM.  Responsiveness of NEI VFQ-25 to changes in Visual Acuity in Neovascular AMD: validation studies from two phase 3 clinical trials.  Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci.  2009 Aug; 50(8):3629-3635.

    Kokame GT, Drouilhet JH. Successful Combined Photodynamic Therapy and Intravitreal Avastin Therapy for Subfoveal Choroidal Neovascularization in a Child.  Retinal Cases and Brief Reports.  2009; 3:89-92.


    Browning DJ, Glassman AR, Aiello LP, Bressler NJM, Bressler SB, Danis RP, Davis MD, Ferris FL, Huang SS, Kaiser PK, Kollman C, Sadda S, Scott IU, Qin H; Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network.  Optical Coherence Tomography Measurements and Analysis Methods in Optical Coherence Tomography Measurements and Analysis Methods in Optical Coherence Tomography Studies of Diabetic Macular Edema.  Ophthalmology 2008 Aug; 115(8):1366-1371.

    Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network.  A randomized trial comparing intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and focal/grid photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema. Ophthalmology.  2008 Sep; 115(9): 1447-9, 1449. e1-10.  Epub 2008 Jul 26.

    Jonisch J, Lai JC, Deramo VA, Flug AJ and Fastenberg DM.  Increased incidence of sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal preserved triamcinolone acetonide.  Br J Ophthalmol.  2008 Aug; 92(8):1051-1054.


        Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network. A Phase II Randomized Clinical Trial of Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Diabetic Macular Edema. Ophthalmology 2007; 144:1860-1867.

    Chan CK, Meyer CH, Gross JG, Abraham P, Nuthi AS, Kokame GT, Lin SG, Rauser ME, Kaiser PK.  Retinal Pigment Epithelial Tears After Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injection for Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration.  Retina. 2007 Jun;27(5):541-551.

    Kokame GT, Tokuhara KG. Surgical Management of Lamellar Macular Hole. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2007 Jan-Feb;38(1): 61-3.

    Boyer DS, Antoszyk AN, Awh CC, Bhisitkul RB, Shapiro H, Acharya NR; MARINA Study Group. Subgroup analysis of the MARINA study of ranibizumab in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology. 2007 Feb;114(2):246-52.


    Kokame GT. An Indication for Surgery in the Antiangiogenic Era.  Retina Today. 2006 Dec;30-2.

    Heier JS, Boyer CS, Ciulla TA, Ferrone PJ, Jumper JM, Gentile RC, Kotlovker D, Chung CY, Kim RY, FOCUS Study Group.  Ranibizumab combined with verteporfin photodynamic therapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: year 1 results of the FOCUS Study.  Arch Ophthalmol.  2006 Nov; 124(11):1532-42.

    Rosenfeld PJ, Brown DM, Heier JS, Boyer DS, Kaiser PK, Chung CY, Kim RY; MARINA Study Group.  Ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration.  N Engl J Med. 2006 Oct5;355(14):1419-31. (Kokame GT – Investigator – Honolulu Center).

    Kokame GT. Editorial.  Newly recognized serous macular detachment in retinal vascular disease. Retina. 2006 May-Jun;26(5):493-4.

    Mruthyunjaya P, Wirostko WJ, Chandrashekhar R, Stinnett S, Lai JC, Deramo V, Tang J, Dev S, Postel EA, Connor TB, Fekrat S. Central retinal vein occlusion in patients treated with long-term warfarin sodium (Coumadin) for anticoagulation. Retina. 2006;26(3):285-91.

    Deramo VA, Lai JC, Fastenberg DM, Udell IL. Acute endophthalmitis in eyes treated prophylactically with fourth-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006; 142(5):721-5.

    Yogananthan P, Deramo A, Lai JC, Tibrewala RK, Rastenberg DM.  Visual improvement following intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin) in exudative age-related macular degeneration.  Retina. 2006; 26(9):994-98.


    Kokame GT, Yamaoka S. Subretinal surgery for peripapillary subretinal neovascular membranes. Retina. 2005, July-Aug; 25(5): 564-9.

    Kokame GT. Managing dislocated IOLs: The posterior segment approach.  Cataract and Refractive Surgery Today. 2005, Aug; 67-69.

    Lai MM, Lai JC, Lee WH, Huang JJ, Patel S, Ying HS, Melia M, Haller JA, Handa JT.  Comparison of retrobulbar and sub-Tenon’s capsule injection of local anesthetic in vitreoretinal surgery. Ophthalmology. 2005;112(4):574-9.

    Lai JL and Shakin J. Diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Retina. 2005;25(7):930-5.


    Kokame GT, Yamamoto I, Mandel H.  Scleral fixation of dislocated posterior chamber intraocular lenses: Temporary haptic externalization through through a clear corneal incision. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2004 May;30(5):1049-56.

    Kokame GT, Yamamoto I, Kishi S, Tamura A, Drouilhet JH. Intrapapillary hemorrhage with adjacent peripapillary subretinal hemorrhage.  Ophthalmology. 2005 May;111(5):926-30.

    Javellana JA, Drouilhet JH, Kokame GT, Chee PH, Wong BM. Retinal capillary angioma in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy treated with photodynamic therapy.  Am J Ophthalmol. 2004 Apr;137(4):630-5.

    Gross JG, Kokame GT, Weinberg DV; Dislocated In-The-Bag Intraocular Study Group.  In-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation.  Am J Ophthalmol. 2004 April;137(4):630-5.

    Kokame GT, Yamamoto I.  Silicone oil versus gas tamponade.  Opthalmology.  2004 Apr;111(4):851-2; author reply 852.


    Kokame GT, Germar GG. Successful management of intruded hydrobuckle with buckle removal, scleral patch graft, and vitrectomy. Retina 2003 Aug;23(4):536-8.

    Freund KB, Ciardella AP, Yanuzzi LA, Pece A, Goldbaum M, Kokame GT, Orlock D. Peripapillary detachment in pathologic myopia. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003 Feb;121(2):197-204.

    Lai JC, Stinnett SS, McCuen BW.  Comparison of silicone oil vs. gas tamponade in the treatment of idiopathic full-thickness macular hole.  Ophthalmolgy. 2003; 110(6):1170-4.

    Lai JC, Sinnett SS, Jaffe GJ.  B-Scan ultrasonography for the detection of macular thickening.  Am J Ophthalmol. 2003; 136(1):55-61.

    Lai JC, Postel EA, McCuen BW.  Recovery of visual function after removal of chronic subfoveal perfluorocarbon liquid.  Retina. 2003;23(6):868-70.


    Kokame GT, McCauley MD. Spontaneous reopening of a spontaneously closed macular hole. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002 Feb;133(2):280-2.

    Kokame GT. Management options for early stages of acutely symptomatic macular holes. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002 Feb;133(2)276-8.

    Lai JC, Lapolice DJ, Stinnett SS, Meyer CH, Arieu LM, Keller MA, Toth CA. Visual outcomes following macular translocation surgery with 360 degree peripheral retinectomy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002; 120:1318-1324.

    Stout JE, Lai JC, Giner J, Hamilton CD. Reactivation of retinal toxoplasmosis despite evidence of immune response to highly active antiretroviral therapy.  Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2002; 35:37-39.

    Greenman H, Lai JC.  Contemporary approaches to management of hyphema. Contemporary Ophthalmology. 2002;35:37-39.


    Kokame GT, de Leon MD, Tanji T. Serous retinal detachment and cystoid macular edema in hypotony maculopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001 Mar 131(3):384-6.

    Kokame GT, Atebara NH, Bennett MD. Modified technique of haptic externalization for scleral fixation of dislocated posterior chamber lens implants. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001 Jan;131(1):384-6.

    Kokame GT. Visual field defects after vitrectomy with fluid-air exchange. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001 Jan;85(1):121.

    Lai JC, Fekrat S, Barron Y, Goldberg MF. Traumatic hyphema in children: risk factors for complications. Arch Ophthalmol. 2001; 119:64-70.


    Kokame GT. Macular traction associated with a premacular circular dehiscence of the detached posterior vitreous cortex.  Vitreotech 2000; 5(1): 1,4-5.

    Kokame GT. Visual field defects after vitrectomy with fluid-air exchange. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000 Nov;130(5):653-4.

    The STOP-ROP Multicenter Study Group.  Supplemental therapeutic oxygen for prethreshold retinopathy of prematurity (STOP-ROP), A Randomized, Controlled Trial. I: Primary Outcomes.  Pediatrics 2000; 105(2) (Kokame GT – investigator and examiner, Honolulu Center).

    Kokame GT. Vitreous hemorrhage after intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and pneumatic displacement of submacular hemorrhage. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000 Apr;129(4):546-7.

    de Vos AF, Fukushima A, Lobanoff MC, Vistica DP, Lai JC, Grivel JC, Wawrousek EF, Whitcup SM, Gery I. Breakdown of tolerance to a neo-self antigen in double transgenic mice in which B cells present the antigen. J. Immun. 2000;164:4594-4600.

    Margalit E, Fujii GY, Lai JC, Gupta P, Chen S, Shyu J, Piyathaisere DV, Weiland JD, de Juan E, Humayun MS. Bioadhesives for intraocular use. Retina. 2000;20:469-477.

    Lai JC. Principles and Practice of Ophthalmology. Second Edition. Editors: Albert DM and Jakobiec FA. [book review]. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000;129(5):699-700.


    Kokame GT. Vitrectomy for Macular Hole. The Randomized Clinical Trials. In: Macular Hole. Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment.  Madreperla SA, McCuen BW, eds. Boston: Butterworth-H, Heinemann 1999: 115-124.

    Lim JI, Kokame GT, Douglas JP. Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome in older patients. Am J Ophthalmol.  1999 June;127(6)725-8.

    Hwang JM, Girkin CA, Perry JD, Lai JC, Miller NR, Hellmann DB. Bilateral ocular ischemic syndrome secondary to giant cell arteritis progressing despite steroid treatment. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;127(1):102-104.

    Lai JC, Lobanoff MC, Fukushima A, Wawrousek EF, Chan CC, Whitcup SM, Gery I. Uveitis induced by lymphocytes sensitized against a transgenically expressed lens protein. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999; 40(11):2735-2739.

    Lai JC, Cooney M. Photodynamic Therapy. In: Dunn JP (editor). Macular Disease. In International Ophthalmology Clinics. Hagerstown: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 1999.


    Whitcup SM, Pleyer U, Lai JC, Lutz S, Mochizuki M, Chan CC. Topical liposome-encapsulated FK-506 for the treatment of endotoxin-induced uveitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 1998; 6(1):51-56.

    Lai JC, FUkushima A, Wawrousek EF, Lobanoff MC, Charukamnoetkanok P, Smith-Gill S, Lee RS, Egwuagu CE, Whitcup, Gery I. Immunotolerance against a foreign antigen transgenically expressed in the lens. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1998; 39(11): 2049-2057.

    Lai JC. The Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Illustrated Manual of Ophthalmology. [book review]. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998:126(6):854.


    Kokame GT. Loss of reading and central vision due to macular diseases–therapeutic management, advances and limitations. Hawaii Med J. 1997 Sep;56(9):245-7.

    Kokame GT. Ultrastructural features of tissue removed during idiopathic macular hole surgery. Am J Ophthalmol. 1997 Mar;123(3):425-6.

    Lai JC, Johnson MW, Martonyi CL, Till GO. Complement-induced retinal ateriolar occlusions in the cat. Retina. 1997;81(2):499-505.


    Whitcup SM, Rizzo LV, Lai JC, Hayashi S, Gazzinelli R, Chan CC. IL-12 inhibits endotoxin-induced inflammation in the eye. Eur J Immunol. 1996; 26(5):995-999.

    Lai JC, Wawrousek EF, Sipe JD, Whitcup SM, Gery I. Reduced susceptibility to IL-1 and endotoxin in transgenic mice expressing IL-1 in their lens. Cytokine. 1996; 8(4):288-293.


    Lai JC, Wawrousek EF, Lee RS, Chan CC, Whitcup SM, Gery I. Intraocular inflammation in transgenic mice expressing a foreign antigen in their lens. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 1995;3:59-62.


    Lai JC, Wawrousek EF, Lee RS, Chan CC, Whitcup SM, Gery I. Analysis of peripheral tolerance to autologous antigens expressed in an immunologically proviledged site. In: Nussenblatt RB, Whitcup SM, Caspi RR, Gery I (editors).  Advances in Ocular Immunology. Amsterdam:Elsevie Publishers, 1994.

    Wawrousek EF, Lai JC, Gery I, Chan CC. Progressive inflammatory disease and neovasulcarization in the eyes of interleukin-1β(IL-1β) transgenic mice. In: Nussenblatt RB, Whitcup SM, Caspi RR, Gery I (editors). Advances in Ocular Immunology. Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishers, 1994.

    Drouilhet JH, Pelke S, Sroate D, Ing M, Wong B, Kokame G, Easa D.  Retinopathy of Prematurity: incidence and severity in Hawaii.  Hawaii Med J. 1994; 53(1):12-4, 22.